This event caused Khrushchev much embarrassment and loss of prestige, resulting in his removal from power in 1964. In 1939, after attempts to form a military alliance with iowa rodeo association Britain and France against Germany failed, the Soviet Union made a dramatic shift towards Nazi Germany. Almost a year after Britain and France had concluded the Munich Agreement with Germany, the Soviet Union made agreements with Germany as well, both militarily and economically during extensive talks. The two countries concluded the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and the German–Soviet Commercial Agreement in August 1939.

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  • Owens became the first American to win four gold medals in track and field.
  • The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 was the first major accident at a civilian nuclear power plant.
  • The treaty did not resolve the question of Sudan, which, under the terms of the existing Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899, stated that Sudan should be jointly governed by Egypt and Britain, but with real power remaining in British hands.
  • In a family court, a woman’s testimony is worth half of a man’s testimony.
  • The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system.
  • There have been recent attempts, however, to normalise relations between the two, with both governments frequently calling for mutual support in the fight against regional and international terrorism.

At the top of the Communist Party was the Central Committee, elected at Party Congresses and Conferences. In turn, the Central Committee voted for a Politburo , Secretariat and the general secretary , the de facto highest office in the Soviet Union. Depending on the degree of power consolidation, it was either the Politburo as a collective body or the General Secretary, who always was one of the Politburo members, that effectively led the party and the country . The Warsaw Pact was a collective defence alliance formed in 1955 among the USSR and its satellite states in Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

Why Were The 1936 Berlin Olympics So Important?

In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the Fourth Arab-Israeli War , a surprise attack to regain part of the Sinai territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier. Eventually Israel won the war, but early successes restored Egypt’s confidence and morale, allowing Sadat to later regain Sinai in exchange for peace with Israel. In the early 1960s, Egypt became fully involved in the North Yemen Civil War.

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The new Egyptian authorities cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood and its supporters, jailing thousands and forcefully dispersing pro-Morsi and/or pro-Brotherhood protests. Many of the Muslim Brotherhood leaders and activists have either been sentenced to death or life imprisonment in a series of mass trials. On 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak’s government. Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, became the de facto interim head of state. On 13 February 2011, the military dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution. During Mubarak’s reign, the political scene was dominated by the National Democratic Party, which was created by Sadat in 1978.

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With the end of the Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took control about 1250. By the late 13th century, Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies. The mid-14th-century Black Death killed about 40% of the country’s population.

Life expectancy started to decline in the 1970s, possibly because of alcohol abuse. This trend can be partly explained by the number of pregnancies rising drastically in the Asian part of the country where infant mortality was the highest while declining markedly in the more developed European part of the Soviet Union. Soviet rail transport was the largest and most intensively used in the world; it was also better developed than most of its Western counterparts. By the late 1970s and early 1980s, Soviet economists were calling for the construction of more roads to alleviate some of the burdens from the railways and to improve the Soviet government budget. The street network and automotive industry remained underdeveloped, and dirt roads were common outside major cities. Soviet maintenance projects proved unable to take care of even the few roads the country had.

Stalin Era 1927

Egypt has played a historical role as a mediator in resolving various disputes in the Middle East, most notably its handling of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the peace process. Relations with Russia have improved significantly following Mohamed Morsi’s removal and both countries have worked since then to strengthen military and trade ties among other aspects of bilateral co-operation. In 2014, Egypt and China established a bilateral “comprehensive strategic partnership”.