Gearless traction machines are low-speed (low-RPM), high-torque electric motors powered either by AC or DC. In this case, the drive sheave is directly attached to the end of the motor. Gearless traction elevators can reach speeds of up to 20 m/s (4,000 ft/min), A brake is mounted between the motor and gearbox or between the motor and drive sheave or at the end of the drive sheave to hold the elevator stationary at a floor. This brake is usually an external drum type and is actuated by spring force and held open electrically; a power failure will cause the brake to engage and prevent the elevator from falling . The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror is the common name for a series of elevator attractions at the Disney’s Hollywood Studios park in Orlando, the Walt Disney Studios Park in Paris and the Tokyo DisneySea park in Tokyo. The central element of this attraction is a simulated free-fall achieved through the use of a high-speed elevator system.

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  • The Action Plan was formally approved at the EU–Georgia Cooperation Council session on 14 November 2006, in Brussels.
  • Objects in the path of the moving doors will either be detected by sensors or physically activate a switch that reopens the doors.
  • The Mongols were expelled by George V of Georgia (r. 1299–1302), son of Demetrius II of Georgia (r. 1270–1289), who was named “Brilliant” for his role in restoring the country’s previous strength and Christian culture.

However, Sabbath mode has the side effect of using considerable amounts of energy, running the elevator car sequentially up and down every floor of a building, repeatedly servicing floors where it is not needed. For a tall building with many floors, the car must move on a frequent enough basis so as to not cause undue delay for potential users that will not touch the controls as it opens the doors on every floor up the building. In the first half of the twentieth century, almost all elevators had no automatic positioning of the floor on which the cab would stop.

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Russia recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia as separate republics on 26 August. In response to Russia’s recognition, the Georgian government severed diplomatic relations with Russia. Russian forces left the buffer areas bordering Abkhazia and South Ossetia on 8 October, and the European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia was dispatched to the buffer areas.


The frequency of these tests is mandated by the local jurisdiction, patrick chenet which may be a town, city, state or provincial standard. The air from the lobby constantly leaks into the elevator shaft due to elevator movements as well as elevator shaft ventilation requirements. Using this conditioned air in the elevator does not increase energy costs. However, by using an independent elevator air conditioner to achieve better temperature control inside the car, more energy will be used.

Aircraft Elevators

The limited-use, limited-application (LU/LA) elevator is a special purpose passenger elevator used infrequently, and which is exempt from many commercial regulations and accommodations. For example, a LU/LA is primarily meant to be handicapped accessible, and there might only be room for a single wheelchair and a standing passenger. Where a generator is being used as the secondary power supply in a hospital, a UPS must also be present to meet regulations stating that healthcare facilities must test their emergency generators under load at least once per month. During the test period only one supply of power is feeding the lift, in a blackout situation without a UPS, the lifts would not be operational. An elevator telephone, which can be used by a trapped passenger to call for help.

Ride quality can be improved by replacing motor-generator-based drive designs with Variable-Voltage, Variable Frequency drives, providing near-seamless acceleration and deceleration. Passenger safety is also improved by updating systems and equipment to conform to current codes. Most elevators are built to provide about 30 to 40 years of service, as long as service intervals specified and periodic maintenance/inspections by the manufacturer are followed. As the elevator ages and equipment become increasingly difficult to find or replace, along with code changes and deteriorating ride performance, a complete overhaul of the elevator may be suggested to the building owners.

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Data about elasticity, load, and other factors is compiled and a report is produced. The report is then analysed to determine whether or not the entire rail is safe to use. In addition to the safety concerns for older hydraulic elevators, there is risk of leaking hydraulic oil into the aquifer and causing potential environmental contamination. This has led to the introduction of PVC liners around hydraulic cylinders which can be monitored for integrity. In destination control systems, one selects the intended destination floor (in lieu of pressing “up” or “down”) and is then notified which elevator will serve their request.

At the first Elevator and Escalator symposium in 2011, Al-Sharif proposed an alternative form of simulation that modeled a car’s single round trip before restarting and running again. This method is still capable of modelling complex systems, and also conforms with standard methodology by producing an RTT value. The model was improved further in 2018 when Al-Sharif demonstrated a way to reintroduce a dispatcher-like function which can model destination control systems. RTT calculations establish an elevator system’s handling capacity by using a set of repeatable calculations which, for a given set of inputs, always produce the same answer. It works well for simple systems; but as systems get more complex, the calculations are harder to develop and implement.

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Likewise, a change of floors or an arrival at a floor is indicated by a sound, depending on the elevator. Some buildings use proximity technology that recognizes residents and brings the elevator to ground level. Sidewalk elevators are used to move materials between a basement and a ground-level area, often the sidewalk just outside the building. They are controlled via an exterior switch and emerge from a metal trap door at ground level. Sidewalk elevator cars feature a uniquely shaped top that allows this door to open and close automatically.

The primary reason for installing an elevator air conditioner is the comfort that it provides while travelling in the elevator. Some elevator air conditioners can be used in countries with cold climates if a thermostat is used to reverse the refrigeration cycle to warm the elevator car. Early users of elevators sometimes reported nausea caused by abrupt stops while descending, and some users would use stairs to go down. The smallest passenger elevator is pneumatic, and it allows for only 1 person. Rare examples of extra-heavy elevators for 20-ton lorries, and even for railcars also occur. Residential elevators may be small enough to only accommodate one person while some are large enough for more than a dozen.